Bhaishajya Kalpanaa is the science of Ayurveda pharmacy; this sophisticated art has basic and straightforward preparations and extremely involved herbal formulas.

The pharmaceutical procedures for any drug involve various steps, starting from identifying and collecting authentic raw material, applying standardized processing techniques, and producing quality drugs to packaging and storing the produced drug. Ayurvedic pharmaceutics is not an exception to this. A quote from Caraka Samhitaa (Caraka Samhitaa Vimana Sthaana 8/87, 1984) says raw material of a specified type having specific characteristics and therapeutic action, grown on a specific soil in a specific geographical area in specific atmospheric conditions should be collected in a specific season. Only such raw material will produce the expected therapeutic effect if used judiciously in proper doses.

Today, I want to give you an overview of the preparations as part of understanding the basics of Bhashajya Kalpana and an example of how to make an external oil.

Basic preparations

These are the basics of the preparations where all other mix formulas will be prepared. 

It can be seen in the following way.

1.- Swara ( Juice)

2.- Kalpa ( paste)

3. Swatha ( decoctions)

4. Hema (cold infusions)

5.- Phanta ( Hot infusions)

Second preparations

In this stage, we use the essential preparations to combine with other herbs or substances. 

We can see it in the following way:

1.- Ghees and oils ( Sneha kalpana)

2.- Medicated Powder ( Churnas)

3.- Fermented ( Sandhana Kalpana)

4.- Semi-solid preparations ( Avalana Kalpanas -Gulams

5.- External applications paste and powders. ( Lepa Kalpana

6.- Eye Elixirs ( Rasa kriya)

Radios and facets of the formulations.

Let’s look more closely at the radios and the different stages in the preparation of the medicines.

1.- Medicated oils and ghee.

Oils and ghee are cooked ideally in a wide-mouth copper pot. In this way, you can easily check the sediments and the cooking stage.

To prepare ghee or oils, you need the following recipe:

Herbs: 1 part (dry herbs)

Oil or ghee:4 parts

Water: 16 parts

I want to introduce you to the term Paka, or the stage where the cooking has to be stopped to create a desirable outcome. Many oil preparations can be spoiled if we don’t learn to pay attention to Paka.- To check the stage of PaKa, you look at the sediments at the bottom of the copper pot.

The 3 stages of Paka:

1.- Soft stage: or Mrudu Paka

 Here, the paste can be rolled in the fingers; if you take the residues from the bottom and put them on the fire, it will show splattering, denoting a little water. In this stage, the oil can be used to make nasya oils ( Anuthaila)

2.- Medium stage: Madhayana Paka

You can check this stage when the residue can be turned into a cone or wick; if they are put on the fire, there is no sign of sparkles. In this stage, the oil is used for internal use ( enemas and eyes).

3.- Hard Stage: Khara Paka

In this stage, the residue is hard and sandy, and the oils are used for external use. ( Abdyangas).

If the Paka is black and burns, the oil is spoiled and loses all medicated properties.

Recipe for Pinda Thalia

This oil works miracles in rheumatism, gout, pain due to inflammation, tendonitis, and, generally, removing toxins from the joints. It is used externally.


1.- Majista rubia cordifolia – 15 grams.

2.- Sarjarasa Vataria Indica – 15 grams

3.- Sariba hemidesmus Indicus 15 grams

4. Beeswax

5.- Sesame oil 240 ml

6. Water 960 ml.


1.- Make a powder and paste of Majista 

2.- Powder sarjarasa.

3.- Slide the beeswax into small pieces and set aside in another pot. You will be pouring the hot oil into this vessel, so it needs to be big enough.

4.- In a thick base vessel, take pastes # 1 and # 2, add water and oil and cook until it stains the hard stage ( Khara Paka).

Turn on the flame and filter immediately into a vessel with the beeswax; mix well before cooling down.

Once it is cooling, store it in a clean jar. The shelf life is two years; after opening, the medicinal effects last 2 to 3 months.

Shelf life of different types of drug forms

Unprocessed dried plant material: One year

Powder Two months

Tablet, Pills, Syrups One year

Medicated oil and ghee Sixteen months

Low potency drugs One year

Alcoholic preparations, Mineral and Metallic drugs More than a year

This is one example of how to make oils; Ayurveda has hundreds of traditional formulations based on Indian herbology. However, the proper knowledge of herbs in your region can supply and preserve excellent medicines for your home pharmacy.