From the moment of our birth to the moment of death, we are always breathing. Our breath rhythm, length and softness change depending on our emotions, thoughts and physical conditions. For a balanced and vital life, the quality of breath is fundamental. Understanding the layers and impact of breath may help you bring more consciousness into this magnificent process of in-breath and out-breath.

Prana and Pranayama

In the yoga tradition, Prana is a molecule of life available to everyone, it is everywhere, and it is equally available to everyone. The science of moving, controlling, expanding and purifying Prana in the body is call pranayamas.

The Literal Meaning of Prana and Pranayama

In Sanskrit, ‘Prana’ is spelled as ‘Praan ‘, and its power is called ‘Praan shakti. ‘

The Sanskrit term ‘Praan ‘is derived from the prefix ‘Pra ‘means ‘brings forth ‘, and root ‘an’ means’ movement. ‘Prana means the force “which brings forth the movement”. And Prana Shakti is all about the manifestation which Prana brings; like life, matter, thoughts, etc. It’s the transformative force that converts energy into matter and matter into energy.

Pranayama in Sanskrit can be read as:

Prana- the force, moving forward or force in front.

Na- the unit of energy that contains the intelligence of the universe.

Yama- To expand WITH awareness.

The force which makes us able to breathe gives us an ability to think, lets us move body limbs freely is the force of Prana. Moreover, every other movement that is happening in all the objects of this universe is the force of Prana. This is why Prana is called the universal force that sums up all forces in the universe.

To understand the meaning of Prana, Swami Vivekananda explains Prana beautifully in his work According to him;

At the beginning of creation, there is only this Akasha (space). But by the power of Prana, Akasha (space) manufactured into this universe.

Swami Vivekananda

Source of Prana

The three primary sources of Prana are the sun, earth, and cosmos. Prana from these sources is called universal Prana, and we get it in different forms like food, air, water, and sunlight. However, it’s said, holy places, experience, contemplation on the supreme self also enhance the Prana level of the body.

Whether you are looking through eyes, breathing through the nose, sensing through the skin, or able to think of an event – Prana is working behind every subtle mechanism of the body.

According to Hindu philosophy, in our body, Prana is said to the companion of Atman, the soul. Prana lies with the soul at the heart center. The soul is the silent experiencer that perceives the physical world through the working of Prana; it enters and leaves the body with the Prana.

Before the physical body or mind begins developing in an embryo in the mother’s womb, the first soul comes into it, and with the soul, Prana comes. Then pranic force (prana-shakti) combines the five elements to create the mind, senses, and body. In this way, Prana is superior to the body & mind, and getting control of Prana gives one control over the mind.

Our mind is able to think, concentrate, meditate, recite a mantra, or melt in devotion only with the help of ‘prana shakti, in the same way as the power to create the universe resting in Shiva is solely the outcome of his Shakti.

How Prana Flows?

Our body is a complex system of organs, and to make sure it is properly functioning, the constant flow of Prana is significant.

Prana flows in the body through subtle energy channels, which in yogic terminology is called the Nadis. The Nadis system is permeated in the entire body so that all the minor Nadis are connected from the three main Nadis Ida, Pingala, and Sushumna. These three main nadis lies in the subtle body along the spinal cord.

Where Ida and Pingala Nadi crisscross each other, at those points, it meets with Sushumna Nadi, the central energy channel. And this way, this point of cross-section forms energy centers, i.e. seven chakras.

When Prana flows through Nadis, then it’s the work of Chakras to distribute it to other minor Nadis that are spread over the whole body. As soon as a chakra is fully filled up with Prana, it starts directing prana shakti in all possible directions by revolving on its axis. It’s called a balanced chakra when Prana is flowing through it in a balanced manner.


Prana flows in the form of Vayus

Yogis observed the functions, intensity, and direction of flowing Prana in the Nadis; they found that Prana acts differently in the different body regions. It is not the same throughout the entire body. For example, in some areas, Prana’s direction is upward (in chest, throat), while in the other areas, it moves downwards.

To understand Prana more accurately, yogis divided Prana into five vayus.

What are Vayus?

The movement in the flow of Prana is called the Vayu. Vayu translates as ‘Wind’. Like the wind is a force behind moving objects, Prana takes movement in the body in the form of Vayu.

Based on the flow of Prana in a particular region of the body, Prana can be divided into five vayus named Prana Vayu, Apana Vayu, Samana Vayu, Udana Vayu, and Vyana Vayu. These 5 are the central division of ‘Prana’ combinedly called the Pancha Pranas.

  1. Prana Vayu

The first and most important type of Prana is Prana Vayu (To distinguish Prana from Prana Vayu, Prana is called Mahaprana). The flow of this Vayu generally happens inwardly and upward direction.

On the physical level, prana Vayu is responsible for the working of the respiratory system, including the pumping of the heart, primary inhalation-exhalation process. Other than this, it also helps in swallowing and regurgitating food. It balances some physiological & psychological activities like eye-concentration, emotions & mental consistency.

The heart chakra is said the main seat of this vayu. Therefore imbalance in the quantity or a blockage in Prana Vayu can lead to depression, low-feeling & heart-related problems.

Yoga Poses To Balance Prana Vayu

To balance the prana vayu, one can practice the Asana in which the chest region is involved majorly. Some examples of Asana to balance prana vayu are standing Cobra, bridge pose, bow pose & camel pose.

2. Apana Vayu 

Apana Vayu flows in the opposite direction of prana vayu, i.e., in the downward direction. Generally, Pranayama is aimed to redirect Apana Vayu to the higher energy centres and restrict its unnecessary flow out of the body. Its location is in Muladhara Chakra.

The main function of Apana Vayu is the elimination of waste as feces, gas, and urine. At the time of childbirth, Apana Vayu helps to create a smooth passageway for delivery. Other than this, Apana Vayu is also responsible for sexual stimulation, ejaculation & the monthly menstrual cycle for women.

The primary working area of Apana vayu is the core of the pelvic floor. It regulates the organs that lie between the navel to the perineum, like the urinary system, reproductive system, kidneys, & large intestine. An imbalance in Apana vayu can lead to diabetes, stomach related problems from poor elimination to laziness, tiredness, itching, depression and negativity.

Yoga Poses To Balance Apana Vayu

To balance apana vayu, one should focus on the poses which cultivate awareness near the root chakra, For example – Tree Pose, Bound Angle Pose, Locust Pose, etc.

3. Samana Vayu


Samana means ‘equal’ (Equal in the sense of ‘Balancing’). It is occupied between the working areas of Prana & Apana Vayu. It hasn’t any movement in an upward or downward direction, but it works only in the navel region. Samana vayu focuses on the ‘fire element’ of the body and hence, stimulates Manipura Chakra.

It is responsible for energy utilized in the digestion process and digestive organs like the stomach, liver, large intestine. Samana vayu is both heating and cooling in nature which regulates the digestion process.

An imbalance of Samana Vayu can disturb a person’s appetite, which brings weakness to the body. Moreover, it affects metabolism deficiency in the body.

Yoga Poses To Balance Samana Vayu

Poses that create extension or contraction in the navel region are good to balance the Samana vayu. For example, Boat pose, Seated forward bend pose, etc.

4. Udana Vayu 

Udana means ‘Fly’ (fly in sense movement). With the help of Udana Vayu only, you can move the different organs of the body.

For example – Moving or rolling the hand through the shoulder, rounding the head & kicking through legs. All these possible because of Udana Vayu. This vital energy lies in the vishuddha chakra (Throat) and limbs above it.

On the physical level, Udana Vayu coordinates the neurons of the motor & sensory nervous system. This coordination helps in the proper movement of different organs of the body. Other than this, controlling the five physical senses are also handled by Udana Vayu.

Udana Vayu works in the different-different regions of the body. It resides between neck to head part, shoulder to fingertips (hands) & hips to the toe tips (legs). The deficiency of Udana Vayu can make a person paralyzed. Senses of the body won’t work correctly & it can lead to vision problems and deafness.

Yoga Poses To Balance Udana Vayu

Poses that bring awareness to the shoulder and head region are best for balancing the Udana vayu in the body, For Example, Bridge Pose, Shoulder Stand, Plow Pose, Fish Pose, etc.

5. Vyana Vayu

Vyana is the 5th and most integrated type of Prana. The main function of vyana vayu is to facilitate reserve force into the deficient area of other pranas. It provides necessary nutrients to needed organs via blood flow.

Unlike the other four pranas, vyana vayu has no specific area working area in the body as it travels across the whole body & mind through the circulatory system.

An imbalance in Vyana vayu can lead to a lack of coordination between sensory and motor neurons. It can further results in weak muscular movements or tight  muscles. Also, by deficiency of this vayu, the body starts sweating, and sudden horripilation by fear becomes a known phenomenon.

Yoga Poses To Balance Vyana Vayu

Half-moon Pose and Eagle Pose can be practiced to redirect vyana vayu in a different part of the body.


Apart from the 5 major vayus, there are 5 minor pranas also, called Upaprana. 5 upa pranas are Naga, Kurma, Krikala, Devdatta, and Dhananjaya.

Whenever there come blockages in the 5 main pranas vayus, upa-pranas works to bring that vayu in balance, also, it is responsible for routine activities like eye blinking, yawning, sneezing, or burping, etc.

  1. Naga – Releases the gas that causes blockage in Prana and Apana Vayu in the form of burping, vomit, hiccups, etc.
  2. Kurma – This upa-prana controls the eyelid winking and keeps eyes moisturize.
  3. Krikala – It induces sneezing to clear the blockages in the respiratory system.
  4. Devdatta – This up-prana releases the gas in the form of Yawning. It balances samana vayu energy by expelling the gas after eating.
  5. Dhananjaya – It regulates the opening and closing of the heart valves and controls the fragmentation of a body after death.

5 Prana Vayus Chart

5 Pranas Location Function Direction of Flow Chakra Element
Prana Vayu Chest, Eyebrows centre Inspiration, swallowing food Upward Heart chakra Air
Apana Vayu Pelvis Elimination, outward movement Downward Root Chakra Earth
Samana Vayu Navel Assimilation Circular inward Solar Plexus Chakra Fire
Udana Vayu Thorat Metabolizing, speech, physical growth Upward Throat Chakra Ether
Vyana Vayu Whole body Circulation All direction Sacral Chakra Water


  1. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 1/Raja-Yoga/Prana
  2. Pranic energy sensations experienced by Indian adolescents: A cross-sectional study
  3. The Role of Prana as the Energy of Consciousness